#### Northern Light

##### Superstar

As a side note for others, you may wonder how to calculate the distance required for gradient (to climb to a certain height).

The answer is to use a calculator for that purpose, and insert the estimated height climb required, and max. slope and it will give you back the distance.

For reference, most of the TTC subway is set to a max. grade of 3.5%; the Ontario line will be 4.5%

In the above example, I have inserted a grade of 3.5 and a vertical distance of 20 (I was thinking Meters, but it doesn't matter, in that as long as you read

the distance in height and length as the same unit, your good.

Note then, that if you ascend 20M, at 3.5% you require 571M

Obviously, in this case the depth of a not yet built station isn't knowable, but 20M is a fairly reasonable assumption. Sheppard's stations range from 13M-18M deep, but the tunnels were all done cut-and-cover, and as such are closer to the surface than is likely for most new construction.

Note that any grade change from below ground to sufficiently elevated to clear railway or highway will be greater than this.

The answer is to use a calculator for that purpose, and insert the estimated height climb required, and max. slope and it will give you back the distance.

### Calculate the Slope

Calculate the slope in degrees and percent, the distances in length and height and the total distance.

rechneronline.de

For reference, most of the TTC subway is set to a max. grade of 3.5%; the Ontario line will be 4.5%

In the above example, I have inserted a grade of 3.5 and a vertical distance of 20 (I was thinking Meters, but it doesn't matter, in that as long as you read

the distance in height and length as the same unit, your good.

Note then, that if you ascend 20M, at 3.5% you require 571M

Obviously, in this case the depth of a not yet built station isn't knowable, but 20M is a fairly reasonable assumption. Sheppard's stations range from 13M-18M deep, but the tunnels were all done cut-and-cover, and as such are closer to the surface than is likely for most new construction.

Note that any grade change from below ground to sufficiently elevated to clear railway or highway will be greater than this.

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